Fuuran - Fuukiran - Neofinetia falcata Megathread

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Plant Nerd
Jan 28, 2008
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A Historical Timeline

1712 - Wakan Sansai Zue is published by Terashima Ryoan.

三才図会に云ふ、風蘭は土あらずして生く。小さき籃(かご)に貯へて樹の上に掛く。人、仙草と称す。細なる 花微かに香し。五雑組に云ふ、風蘭は根土に着かずして木石の上に叢り蟠(またが)り、取りて之れを(のき) の際に懸く。時に風の為に吹かるときは愈々茂盛す。其の葉花家蘭と全く異なること無し。按ずるに、風蘭は深 山に之れ有り(かや)み)等の幹(えだ)の間に多く之れ有り。葉の形万年青に似て細く小さく、其の長さ二、 三寸、六月に一茎を抽(ぬ)き小白花を開く。末(すえ)曲り微かに香し。

"According to Sancai Tuhui (a Chinese encyclopedia), Fûran grows w/o soil. It is placed in a small basket and then on a tree. People call this Sen Sô (Celestial Herb/Weed). Small flowers have a light fragrance. According to 五雑組 (another Chinese encyclopedia), roots of Fûran never touch soil and mount on trees and rock. People hang this from eaves after collection (from wild). It grows well when breezy. There is no difference between leaves and flowers of this and those of ordinary orchids.

I contemplate that the habitat of Fûran is deep in mountains, and many are found on branches of Torreya nucifera, Abies firma, and such. Leaves look like Rohdea japonica, but small and narrow. The length of leaves are 2~3 inches. An inflorescence will emerge in June, and bear small white flowers. The tip of flower is bent, and has a weak fragrance."

Source: Translation credit given to Orchidboard user Kentaki. View the thread: Click Here

1755 - Ehon No Yamagusa by author Tachibana Yasukuni depicts Fuuran along with other orchids on plate 27.

Source: Orchidboard See the whole book: Click Here

1784 - Carl Peter Thunberg introduces the type species Orchis falcata to the Western World from Japan.

Source: Thunberg's Original Collected Specimen

1794 - Thunberg publishes Icones plantarum japonicarum Plate 6 features Limodorum falcatum.

Source: Biodiversity Heritage Library See the whole book: Click Here

1893 - In the book A Manual of Orchidaceous Plants Cultivated Under Glass in Great Britain Vol. 2 published by Veitch & Sons, the plant is described as Angraecum falcatum.

A. falcatum.
A diminutive plant. Stems 1—2 inches high, each with 3—5 somewhat falcately linear, acute leaves, 2—3 inches long, channelled on the face, sharply keeled beneath. Peduncles shorter than the leaves, 3—5 or more flowered. Flowers fragrant, milk-white, about £ inch in diameter, on slender pedicels 2 inches long; sepals and petals similar and equal, linear-oblong, acute; lip three-lobed, the side lobes minute, tooth-like, the intermediate lobe narrowly oblong, retuse; spur filiform, curved, as long as the pedicel.
Angrtecum falcatum, Lindl. Gen. ct Sp. Orch. p. 237, in note (1832), sub. CEceoclades falcata. Benth. in Journ. Linn. Soc. XVIII. p. 336 (1881). Limodorum falcatum, Swartz in Nov. Act. Up. VI. p. 79 (1799). BoL Beg. t. 283 (1818). Bot. Mag. t. 2097. CEceoclades falcata, Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. p. 237 (1882). Franeh. et Sav. Enum. pi. Jap. II. p. 28. Aerides Thunbergii, Miq. Prod. p. 137. S6 Mokou, XVIII. fol. 24. Orchis falcata, Thunb. Fl. jap. p. 26.

The unpretending little orchid described above has an exceptional interest attached to it, not only from a scientific point of view on account of its geographical position and from the difficulty experienced by the older botanists in determining its systematic place, but also in a horticultural sense as being the first Angraecum cultivated in the glass-houses of Europe, and one of the earliest of the Japanese orchids ever introduced.

It was detected on the hills near the port of Nagasaki in southern Japan by Thunberg some time between 1773 and 1778.* So little was known at that time of the epiphytal orchids that Thunberg at first referred it to the terrestrial genus Orchis, with which it has but a slender affinity, but subsequently removed it to Limodorum, a monotypic genus widely dispersed over the Mediterranean region, to which it is scarcely more nearly related than to Orchis. In this, however, he was followed by his countryman Swarz, the greatest orchid authority of his time, and doubtless owing to the influence of this authority it was figured both in the Botanical Register (1818) and in the Botanical Magazine (1819) under the name of Limodorum falcatum. Lindley, was the first botanist to bring it under Angrscum, but afterwards removed it to Qiceoclades, a genus which he had founded upon a Brazilian plant previously described and figured as an Aiigraecum,t but now somewhat doubtfully referred to Eulophia; the other species brought by Lindley under (Eceoclades were removed by Eeichenbach to Saccolabium with the exception of the little Japanese plant, our present subject, which he seems to have overlooked. This enlargement of Saccolabium was sanctioned by Bentham, who, however, rightly restores the Japanese plant to the genus in which Lindley first placed it.) That a species of Angraecum should be found in a country so remote from its congeners as Japan, is a phenomenon for which no explanation can be offered.

Angraecum falcatum was first introduced into British gardens by Dr. Roxburgh, who sent plants to Sir Abraham Hume about the year 1813, and by whom they were cultivated in a hot-house in his garden at Wormley Bury, near Cheshunt. It probably became lost to cultivation for a number of years, till it was re-introduced by ourselves and other firms from its native country within the last quarter of a century. Besides the locality in which it was first detected by Thunberg, it has been reported from Kiu-siu and Kin-bo-san.

* Carl Peter Thunberg was a Swedish physician and botanist, a pupil and one of the immediate successors of Linnaeus in the Chair of Botany in the University of Upsal. In 1771 he obtained a situation as surgeon to one of the Dutch East India Company's vessels, and sailed from Amsterdam for the East. He landed at the Cape of Good Hope and made several excursions into the interior, and after having remained at the Cape three winters he sailed in 1773 for Java, and subsequently visited Japan. He returned to his native country in 1779, and published a Flora Japonica in 1784.
t Bot. Reg. t. 618. + Gen. Plant. III. p. 579,

Source: Google Books - Read the whole book: Click Here
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Informational Websites

AOS Neofinetia Page - Click Here
Fukiran Society of America - Click Here
Internet Orchid Encyclopedia Entry - Click Here
Neo Base - Click Here

Places to purchase Neofinetia falcata:

Flora Peculia - Click Here
Tropical Gardens Orchids - Click Here

United States-
Orchids Limited - Jason Fischer Click Here
New World Orchids - Dr. Kristen Uthus Click Here
Seed Engei - Satomi Click Here
Al's Orchid Greenhouse - Click Here
Diamond Orchids - Peter T. Lin Click Here
Cal Orchids - Click Here

Social Media Groups:

The International Neofinetia Group - Click Here
Neofinetia Falcata Group - Click Here
International Neofinetia Alliance - Click Here

Neofinetia photo feed - Click Here
Fukiran photo feed - Click Here

#neofinetia photo feed - Click Here
#fukiran photo feed - Click Here

Neofinetia search - Click Here

Other possible sections to include:
General Information
Culture and Growing tips
Event Calendar
Online Media
Forum Links
Variety Descriptions
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Back in September of 2006, almost ten years ago now, I posted a thread on this forum asking Jason Fischer to come to Slippertalk and discuss Japanese orchids. He shared his wisdom about Neofinetia falcata in several posts. You can see that thread here...


Now it's 2016, and the Neofinetia falcata growing community outside of Japan has continued to grow. There are a few groups on Facebook dedicated to Neofinetia falcata, there is a yearly Fukiran judging contest in California, and there are more varieties available in the U.S. and Canada, and places to purchase those varieties, than ever before.

I stepped away from orchid growing for a few years. Now I am back, and with a few Neofinetia falcata varieties on my shelf, I am reminded why I fell in love with this species in the first place. The thread I posted a link to above is referenced on other forums, by other Neofinetia growers, as a good resource. I want to put together something bigger and better.

This thread is going to be a reference thread for all things Neofinetia falcata or Fukiran. I am going to fill it with links and information over the coming months, and if the forum management doesn't mind, I am going to make it a sticky. I hope it remains a useful resource for Neofinetia falcata lovers until 2026, and beyond.

I would love some help or suggestions filling this thread. If anyone has links for places to purchase Neofinetia falcata in Canada or Europe, I will list them. We also need links to nurseries in Japan and Korea. I will try to come up with information regarding tsuke and root nomenclature, variety descriptions etc. If anyone wants to help, jump on in.
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For Canada, here are 2:

Flora Peculia http://www.florapeculia.ca/
Tropical Garden Orchids http://www.tgorchids.com/
We can buy from Orchids Lted too
and Okheon Ann (South Korea)

By the way, did you know the Neo Base website?

I have heard of Neo Base, but its information is locked behind a registration. This thread will be much more visible, indexed and easily found on a search engine. Plus, it never hurts to have more than one site with info in case one goes down.
Thanks Marco, I'll get those added ASAP. I got signed into Neo-base. It's pretty cool. I still have some more photos and things to add here, and I am going to contribute some to Neo-base too.
I love digging up the information, but I'm no expert. It seems like just yesterday Jason wrote his, but that was ten years ago.
Time flies! I, too, once grew Neos -- a lot of them! Then I stopped altogether for a few years. Now I'm back, rebuilding my collection and having the time of my life. These are great orchids! I'm so glad to see this thread.
Yes, the actions of a certain political party have helped us out of the recession caused by the' Real Estate is a speculative investment' era. Hint: It does not have an Orangutan as its candidate in the next election! :eek:
Yes, the actions of a certain political party have helped us out of the recession caused by the' Real Estate is a speculative investment' era. Hint: It does not have an Orangutan as its candidate in the next election! :eek:

True, as Neos can be a pricey hobby, which brings up something else I'd be interested in learning: What do each of you consider to be your most valuable Neo(s)?

I have several favorite Neos; it's hard for me to choose just one, but as for actual value, the choice is clear. Kokubotan is by far my most precious plant followed by Tengyokuhou and Otaka no Yuki.
Some of my favorite plants, however, are surprisingly common and inexpensive.
My favorite Neofinetia are:
1. Nishidemiyako 西出都
2. Ryouga 凌駕
3. Shishikouryu 獅子甲龍
4. Manjushage 曼珠沙華
5. Kokka 国華
6. Kuroshinju 黒真珠
7. Isechabo 伊勢矮鶏
8. Hokage 火影
9. Hisui 翡翠
10.Higashidemiyako 東出都
11.Daiseikai 大聖海
12.Amanogawa 天の川

I would participate more often here but it is very difficult to post pictures of my Furan. There is something I cannot figure out how to do so--using Tapatalk on an iPad. I have set up a Flickr account so I can capture BBcode, to no avail.
My favorites. These are not based on value but rather characteristics. When they get big enough it may be the other way around. I'd like to have a nice sized clump for each of these but they all have a long way to go.

1) seikai (flower form and leaf form)
2) manjushage (flower form)
3) daishougun (leaf form)
4) fuji-nishiki (leaf form)
5) kujaku-nishiki (leaf form)

It's safe to say that I am partial to shima striped neos.
I favor the bean leaf Neos and that's mostly what I grow.

Kasen 華泉 is probably my current favorite plant even though it is very common and generally low-priced. I find it grows and blooms well, and I very much like how it looks.

The following plants are all favorites of mine but not in any particular order:

Kabutomaru 兜丸 is a strong plant, looks great, has a wavy tsuke, blooms well and the flowers have a great scent.

Fukujumaru 福寿丸 is a very attractive needle leaf variety, and the flowers carry a strong vanilla scent.

Kokubotan 黒牡丹 is currently my most valuable plant and also a favorite. The reason why Kokubotan is worth so much is because of its ability to freely transform into Kinbotan and its related varieties. It's one of my favorites because of its smaller size, very shapely form and its sumi markings. It is not considered a bean leaf variety.

Otaka no Yuki 大鷹の雪 is on my favorite list because it is such a good bloomer with great fragrance and also a strong plant. This is a mutation of Otakamaru with slight wisps of yellow variegation which occasionally appear on the edges of the leaves.

Suigai 垂崖 is a favorite bean leaf of mine because it has great form, is a strong plant and the long-spurred, sky-facing flowers are tinged with pink. It also has a nice, wavy tsuke.

Aoshinju 青真珠 also makes the list. It is a tiny plant much like Kuroshinju, but it is easier to grow and the flowers are often tinged with pink.

Tengyokuhou 天玉寶 has amazingly wide leaves, a mountain tsuke and seems to be a strong plant as well. I'm having fun watching it grow and am anxious to experience its flowers...maybe next year!

I'm sure I will be adding more of my plants to my list of favorites as time goes by. Tsushima Ryokuhou, Kyokko and Suruga Kyokko are prime candidates if not there already.

I also have some I'm not so crazy about like Yodo no Matsu and some about which I am currently dubious, at best, like Kirinmaru, Eboshimaru, Isechabo and Amami no Mai There's still hope for all of these varieties, however, as time goes by. It all depends on how well they perform and whether or not they start to please my eye a little more than they have up 'til now. Isechabo and Amami no Mai are the two among this group for which I hold out the most hope.
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