Latin Terms

Discussion in 'Taxonomy' started by Heather, Aug 3, 2007.

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  1. Aug 3, 2007 #1

    Heather

    Heather

    Heather

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    I came across this in a file at work and thought it might be useful to some of us.

    Colors
    alba= white
    caerulea = sky blue
    aurea = golden
    niger = black
    rosea = rosy, pink
    rubra = red
    viride = green
    virens = greenish
    glauca = w/bloom or whitish
    chlore = green
    melan = black
    atropurpureus = blackish purple
    luteum = yellow

    Size
    mini = small
    macro = large
    mega = largest
    parvi = small
    pauci = few
    lati = wide
    angusti = narrow
    tenui = thin, weak
    grandi = large, showy
    minor = less
    major = more
    hyper = above, extreme


    Numbers
    uni, uno = one
    mono = one
    duo = two
    bi- = two
    tri, tre = three
    tern = three
    tetra = four
    quatro = four
    quinque = five
    sex = six
    septa = seven
    octo = eight
    novem = nine
    deca = ten
    poly = many
    bunda = oh so many
    a- = without
    oligo- = few

    Habitat
    sylvatica = woods
    arvensis, -a= cultivated land
    palustris, -a= of marshes
    alpina = alpine
    montana = mountainous
    rivale = by streams
    virginiensis= from eastern North America
    pennsylvanica= Mid-Atlantic
    canadensis= north of NY, Canada
    occidentalis= western
    australis = southern
    borealis = northern
    orientalis = eastern
    campestris= plains/low fields
    caroliniana= from the south
    americana= discovered in America

    Habit (style of growth)
    cernua = nodding
    repens = creeping
    procumbens= reclining
    verticillata= whorled
    acaulis = stemless
    stolonifera= producing runners


    Shape/Texture
    glabra, -ous= smooth, without hairs
    rotundi = round
    reni = kidney shape
    cordata = heart shape
    linearis = long/narrow
    cornuta = horn shaped
    pubescens= downy
    hirsuta = hairy
    sempervirens= evergreen
    rugosa = wrinkled
    maculata s = potted
    lucide= shiny
    laevis= smooth
    cuneatus = wedge-shaped
    pilosus = hairy

    General
    folia, -um, -us= leaf
    phylla, -um, -us =leaf
    carpum = fruit
    flora = flower
    petala = petal, petal-like
    radicans = rooting
    sativus = cultivated or sown
    hetero = different/variable
    homo = similar/alike
    sperma, -us= seed
    gymno- = naked
    novi = new
    ped = foot
    -oides = resembles
    pseudo = false
    vernalis = spring
    aestivale = summer
    autumnalis= fall
    hyemalis = winter
    nivalis = of the snow
    officinalis = on official list, for medical use


    Suggested reference:
    Neal, Bill. Gardener’s Latin, Discovering the Origins, Lore & Meanings of Botanical Names. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill. 1992.

    Pronunciation:
    It has been said that the secret to pronouncing Latin names is....to do it with authority!
    Here are a few basic rules that will help. Maybe the greatest aid is hearing the words.

    Endings:
    words ending in -aceae (typical family ending); a-see-ee
    the “ch” in Polystichum; pronounce as a “k”
    the double “cc” as in occidentalis; ox-si-dentalis
    the letter “i”’ ee
    the letter “g”: hard before a, o, u; soft before e, i, y
    Accents:
    words ending in two syllables bounded by consonants (Camptosorus, Osmunda)have the accent on the next to the last syllable; Camptosorus, Osmundawords ending in two syllables not bounded by consonants (Botrychium, banksiana,Tofieldia) have the third syllable from the end accented: Botrychium, banksiana, Tofieldia.

    All vowels in words ending in -ium, -ia, -ii, etc. are usually pronounced individually
     
    Last edited: Aug 3, 2007
  2. Aug 3, 2007 #2
    Excellent! Very useful!
    Too many for my memory, I'll have to copy & paste!
     
  3. Aug 3, 2007 #3

    Heather

    Heather

    Heather

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    Thanks Ron,
    The first two are actually two columns, combined, so I'll still edit the first message.
     
  4. Aug 3, 2007 #4

    Ron-NY

    Ron-NY

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    ah, I see what you are saying...LOL, I should have waited for you and copied and pasted.
    color one column and size another. I am going to remove my post and wait for your edit
     
  5. Aug 3, 2007 #5

    Heather

    Heather

    Heather

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    :) You get an A+ for effort, Ron.

    If people have others to add, please do!
     
  6. Aug 3, 2007 #6

    Mark

    Mark

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  7. Aug 3, 2007 #7

    Rick

    Rick

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    That is very cool Heather. It expands my comprehension considerably.
     
  8. Aug 4, 2007 #8

    Ron-NY

    Ron-NY

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    now I have a better copy...thanks Heather!!!

    the more common spelling of the latin term for sky blue is : coerulea
     
  9. Aug 4, 2007 #9

    Heather

    Heather

    Heather

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    Mark's dictionary is great too.

    I had no idea that pennsylvancium was the mid atlantic - I always figured it meant that it was originally found in or native to Pennsylvania. Same with virginicum (as in Mertensia virginiensis) very interesting!
     
  10. Aug 4, 2007 #10

    bwester

    bwester

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    huh huh huh.... virgin.....
    latin kicks ass
     
  11. Aug 4, 2007 #11

    SlipperFan

    SlipperFan

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    Thanks, Heather. Very useful.
     
  12. Aug 4, 2007 #12

    NYEric

    NYEric

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    As we used to say in latin class, " is ea id"
     
  13. Aug 11, 2007 #13

    DukeBoxer

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    So is besseae pronounced ee-a or ee-aye. I have always thought of it as the first ee-a, but only hear ee-aye.
     
  14. Aug 12, 2007 #14

    rdlsreno

    rdlsreno

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    Thanks for the informations!!

    Ramon:)
     

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